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Analysis and Design
After the thorough analysis of the system is done, the design process for the
proposed system starts. Designing of the system includes making the conceptual
layout of the system using various modeling techniques available and coding the
proposed system for actual implementation.
The first step after the analysis of the system is making the conceptual design.
Conceptual design consists of two elements: data model and functional models.
Data modeling is a technique for organizing and documenting system's data.
Process model is a technique for organizing and documenting a system's processes,
inputs, outputs and data stores. Generally, these models give the following information.
- What all processes make up a system?
- What data are used in each process?
- What data are stored?
- What data enter and leave the system?
Information is transformed as it flows through a computer-based system. As
we already know, information transformation basically consists of: input, process
and output. The system accepts input in variety of forms; applies hardware, software,
and human elements to transform input into output; and produces output in a variety
of forms. The transform(s) may comprise a single logical comparison, a complex
numerical algorithm or rule-inference approach of an expert system. We can create
a flow model for any computer-based system, regardless of size and complexity.
By flow models, we get to know the functionality of a system.
Data flow diagram is one of the tools used in the analysis phase. Data flow
diagram is a graphical tool used to analyze the movement of data through a system-manual
or automated-including the processes, stores of data, and delay in the system.
The transformation of data from input to output, through processes, may be described
logically and independently of the physical components (for example, computers,
file cabinets, disk units, and word processors).
Structure chart is another tool used in designing phase of the life cycle
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