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Analysis and Design
Fig 2.1 shows different stages in the system's life cycle. It initiates with a
project request. First stage is the preliminary analysis. The main aim of preliminary
analysis is to identify the problem. First, need for the new or the enhanced
system is established. Only after the recognition of need, for the proposed system
is done then further analysis is possible.
Suppose in an office all leave-applications are processed manually. Now this
company is recruiting many new people every year. So the number of employee in
the company has increased. So manual processing of leave application is becoming
very difficult. So the management
is considering the option of automating the leave processing system. If this is
the case, then the system analyst would need to investigate the existing system,
find the limitations present, and finally evaluate whether automating the system
would help the organization.
Once the initial investigation is done and the need for new or improved system
is established, all possible alternate solutions are chalked out. All these systems
are known as "candidate systems". All the candidate systems are then
weighed and the best alternative of all these is selected as the solution system,
which is termed as the "proposed system". The proposed system is evaluated
for its feasibility. Feasibility for a system means whether it is practical and
beneficial to build that system.
Feasibility is evaluated from developer and customer's point of view. Developer
sees whether they have the required technology or manpower to build the new system.
Is building the new system really going to benefit the customer. Does the customer
have the required money to build that type of a system? All these issues are covered
in the feasibility study of the system. The feasibility of the system is evaluated
on the three main issues: technical, economical, and operational. Another issue
in this regard is the legal feasibility of the project.
Technical feasibility: Can the development of the proposed
system be done with current equipment, existing software technology, and available
personnel? Does it require new technology?
Economic feasibility: Are there sufficient benefits in creating
the system to make the costs acceptable? An important outcome of the economic
feasibility study is the cost benefit analysis.
Legal feasibility: It checks if there are any legal hassle
in developing the system.
Operational feasibility: Will the system be used if it is
developed and implemented? Will there be resistance from users that will undermine
the possible application benefits?
The result of the feasibility study is a formal document, a report detailing
the nature and scope of the proposed solution. It consists of the following:
- Statement of the problem
- Details of findings
- Findings and recommendations in concise form
Once the feasibility study is done then the project is approved or disapproved
according to the results of the study. If the project seems feasible and desirable
then the project is finally approved otherwise no further work is done on it.
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