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Analysis and Design
Classifications of System
From previous section we have a firm knowledge of various system components
and its characteristics. There are various types of system. To have a good understanding
of these systems, these can be categorized in many ways. Some of the categories
are open or closed, physical or abstract and natural or man made information systems,
which are explained next.
Classification of systems can be done in many ways.
Physical or Abstract System
Physical systems are tangible entities that we can feel and touch. These may
be static or dynamic in nature. For example, take a computer center. Desks and
chairs are the static parts, which assist in the working of the center. Static
parts don't change. The dynamic systems are constantly changing. Computer systems
are dynamic system. Programs, data, and applications can change according to the
Abstract systems are conceptual. These are not physical entities. They may
be formulas, representation or model of a real system.
Open Closed System
Systems interact with their environment to achieve their targets. Things that
are not part of the system are environmental elements for the system. Depending
upon the interaction with the environment, systems can be divided into two categories,
open and closed.
Open systems: Systems that interact with their environment. Practically most
of the systems are open systems. An open system has many interfaces with its environment.
It can also adapt to changing environmental conditions. It can receive inputs
from, and delivers output to the outside of system. An information system is an
example of this category.
Closed systems:Systems that don't interact with their environment. Closed systems
exist in concept only.
Man made Information System
The main purpose of information systems is to manage data for a particular
organization. Maintaining files, producing information and reports are few functions.
An information system produces customized information depending upon the needs
of the organization. These are usually formal, informal, and computer based.
Formal Information Systems: It deals with the flow of information from top
management to lower management. Information flows in the form of memos, instructions,
etc. But feedback can be given from lower authorities to top management.
Informal Information systems: Informal systems are employee based. These are
made to solve the day to day work related problems. Computer-Based Information
Systems: This class of systems depends on the use of computer for managing business
applications. These systems are discussed in detail in the next section.
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