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Analysis and Design
Systems Analysis and Design - Complete
Introductory Tutorial for Software Engineering
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Computers are fast becoming our way of life and one cannot imagine life without
computers in today’s world. You go to a railway station for reservation,
you want to web site a ticket for a cinema, you go to a library, or you go to
a bank, you will find computers at all places. Since computers are used in every
possible field today, it becomes an important issue to understand and build these
computerized systems in an effective way.
Building such systems is not an easy process but requires certain skills and
capabilities to understand and follow a systematic procedure towards making of
any information system. For this, experts in the field have devised various methodologies.
Waterfall model is one of the oldest methodologies. Later Prototype Model, Object
Oriented Model, Dynamic Systems Development Model, and many other models became
very popular for system development. For anyone who is a part of this vast and
growing Information Technology industry, having basic understanding of the development
process is essential. For the students aspiring to become professionals in the
field a thorough knowledge of these basic system development methodologies is
In this web site we have explored the concepts of system development. The web
site starts with the system concepts, making the reader understand what does system
mean in general and what are information systems in specific. The web site then
talks about the complete development process discussing the various stages in
the system development process. The different types of system development methodologies,
mentioned above, are also explained.
This tutorial is for beginners to System Analysis and Design (SAD) Process.
If you are new to computers and want to acquire knowledge about the process of
system development, then you will find useful information in this tutorial. This
tutorial is designed to explain various aspects of software development and different
techniques used for building the system. This tutorial is a good introductory
guide to the need and overall features of software engineering.
This tutorial is designed to introduce Software Engineering concepts to the
upcoming software professionals. It assumes that its reader does not know anything
about the system development process. However it is assumed that the reader knows
the basics of computers.
What is Software Engineering?
Software Engineering is the systematic aproach to the development, operation
and maintenance of software. Software Engineering is concerned with development
and maintenance of software products.
The primary goal of software engineering is to provide the quality of software
with low cost. Software Engineering involves project planning, project management,
systematic analysis, design, validations and maintenance activities.
System Analysis and Design Contents
1. Introduction to Systems - Introduces
the concept of systems to the reader and explains what an information system is.
It talks about various types of information systems and their relevance to the
functioning of any organization. This chapter also gives a brief introduction
to system analysis and design.
2. Software (System)
Development Life Cycle Models - Explains various activities involved
in the development of software systems. It presents the different approaches towards
software development. In this chapter, Waterfall Model, Prototype Model, Dynamic
System Development Model, and Object Oriented models are discussed.
3. Preliminary Analysis
- covers various activities that are performed during the preliminary analysis
of the system development. It shows how the feasibility study for the system to
be developed is done. Also in the later part of the chapter various software estimation
techniques are discussed.
Fact Finding and Decision Making Techniques - shows the various techniques
used for fact finding during the analysis of the system. In this, interviews,
questionnaires, on site observation, and record reviews are presented. This chapter
also discusses the decision-making and documentation techniques. For this Decision
Tables, Decision Tress, Structured English and Data Dictionary is presented.
5. Functional Modeling I
- presents the various concepts of system design. Design elements like input-output
to the system, processes involved in the system and the database elements of the
system are discussed. It also discusses Data Flow Diagrams that are used to represent
the functionality of the system.
Modeling II - introduces the modular programming concept to the software
development. It explains the structure charts that represent the modular structure
of various modules of the software being developed. Concepts like Cohesion and
Coupling that further enhance the users understanding of modular designing are
7. Data Modeling Techniques
- presents the concepts involve in the data modeling phase of system development
where the storage of data and the storage form is discussed. Here Entity Relationship
model along with Entity Relationship Diagrams is used to illustrate the data modeling
concepts. are discussed.
Data Modeling and Object Oriented Data Modeling Techniques - is an
extension to the chapter 7 (Data
Modeling Techniques). Here two other data models, Relational and Object Oriented
Models are discussed. Comparison of the two models is also presented.
9. Testing and Quality
Assurance - covers the various testing techniques and strategies
employed during the development of the system. Also various quality assurance
activities for software development are presented.